South African National Space Agency
SANSA was established on 9 December 2010 by the National Space Agency Act. The agency was formed with the intent of consolidating space-related research, projects and research in South Africa and to assume the role as a regional center for space research in Africa. It fosters cooperation in space-related activities and research in space science, seeks to advance scientific engineering through human capital, as well as the peaceful use of outer space, and supports the creation of an environment conducive to the industrial development of space technologies within the framework of national government.
SANSA is a key contributor to the South African Earth Observation Strategy (SAEOS), for which the primary objective is “to coordinate the collection, assimilation and dissemination of Earth observation data, so that their full potential to support policy, decision-making, economic growth and sustainable development in South Africa can be realised.” SANSA will provide space-based data platforms that focus on in-situ Earth observation measurements in collaboration with entities such as the South African Earth Observation Network (SAEON).
National Space Research and Development Agency (NSRDA)-Nigeria
NASRDA was established on 1 August 2001 after preparation period since in 1998 by Nigerian president Olusegun Obasanjo and the Nigerian government with a primary objective of establishing a “fundamental policy for the development of space science and technology” with an initial budget of $93 million. In May 2006, the new extended national space program was adopted.
Five satellites have been launched by the Nigerian government into outer space. Early plans to launch a national satellite in 1976 were not executed. The NigeriaSat-1 was the first Nigerian satellite and built by a United Kingdom-based satellite technology company, Surrey Space Technology Limited (SSTL ltd) under the Nigerian government sponsorship for $30 million. The satellite was launched by Kosmos-3M rocket from Russian Plesetsk spaceport on 27 September 2003. Nigeriasat-1 was part of the worldwide Disaster Monitoring Constellation System.
Ghana Space Science and Technology Center (GSSTC)
The Ghana Space Science and Technology Centre (GSSTC) was opened officially on 2 May 2012 as Ghana’s first space science, space exploration, astronomy and technology space agency. GSSTC and Ghana Space Agency (GhSA) aims to become an arena of excellence in space science, space exploration and space technology through teaching, learning, private spaceflight and space research commercialisation. The centre and space agency will also allow scientists and astronauts to conduct research into natural resource management, weather forecasting, agriculture and national security.
Between the years of 2012 and 2024, Ghana is reportedly seeking USD5-10 billion in finance and funding support to develop the centre’s infrastructure and human capacity. It has approached a global consortium of multinational institutions – including the China Development Bank, and the bank HSBC – as well as requesting technical advice from the China National Space Administration, and NASA for space science exploration, and institutions in Japan, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and India, Indian Space Research Organisation. The agency is planning to complete its first satellite by 2020. In 2015, the government allocated $10 million to research nuclear and space science technology. The goal of the funding is to increase outreach and work towards Earth imaging satellites, so they do not have to purchase imagery from other countries. As of 2016, there are 20 employees working at the institute. A major driver of Earth monitoring satellites is to curtail the increase in illegal mining, which has a negative effect on the environment.
Algerian Space Agency (ASAL)
he Algerian Space Agency, (ASAL) was established on January 16, 2002 in Bouzareah, Algiers. It is in charge of the Algerian space program. ASAL has flown five different satellites. The Algerian Space Agency consists of a central structure and four operational entities that are: Center of Space Techniques (CTS), Space Applications Center (SAC), Satellite Development Center (SDC), and Telecommunications Systems Operating Center (TSOC). At the initiative of Algeria, a project for the construction of an Earth Observation Satellite (ASEO) was approved at the 17th Summit of Arab Heads of State held in Algiers in March 2005. Since its launch, this project has been the subject of several stages of discussions and validation as well technical as political and institutional.
Morocco, has a space program
According to space specialist websites, it is a high resolution optical reconnaissance system built by a consortium that includes Airbus Defence and Thales Alenia of France. Surrounded by extreme secrecy, the construction of the first Moroccan spy satellite is thought to have been commissioned in 2013 during a visit by French President François Hollande to Rabat. The two space-based spy systems are estimated to have set the kingdom’s taxpayers back by around $590 million. Space experts say the system is a modified version of French satellite Pleiades, which is capable of taking 500 images daily including in infrared and sending them to ground stations every six hours. Although the primary function of the satellite is likely to focus on smuggling, counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism in the Sahel region and efforts to curb illegal immigration through the kingdom.